Water Treatment Training

559-01 Molecular Chemistry of Water

When you complete this lesson, you will be able to discuss which elements combine to form water and why they bond. You will also learn some basic history of water and its special characteristics.

  • Discuss the history and importance of water
  • Describe the atom’s molecular structure and electromagnetic forces
  • Review Dalton’s Atomic Theory
  • Describe the atomic makeup of a water molecule and how this applies to water chemistry
  • List some of the unique characteristics of water

559-02 Elements and the Periodic Table of Elements

When you complete this lesson, you will understand how elements are named, grouped, and listed on the periodic table.

  • Discuss the history of the periodic table of elements
  • Describe the role elements play in chemistry
  • Explain the importance of an element’s atomic weight, atomic number, and symbol
  • Discuss how electrons in the outer shell of an atom relate to chemical reactions and bonding
  • Describe the organizational pattern of the periodic table of elements and list classifications of elements

559-03 Chemical Compounds

When you have completed this lesson, you will be able to identify individual compounds and describe their creation, reactions, and bonds. You will also be able to demonstrate a working knowledge of solutions.

  • Discuss the chemical makeup of compounds and explain how they differ from mixtures
  • Describe the chemical bonding process and identify different types of bonds
  • List the four types of chemical reactions
  • Demonstrate how to write chemical equations and formulas
  • Describe solutions, solubility, and saturation; discuss the role each plays in the treatment of water

559-04 Corrosion Causes and Effects

When you complete this lesson, you will be able to identify the causes and effects of the various types of corrosion found throughout the water and steam systems in a industrial facility

  • Define corrosion and discuss its causes
  • Explain how corrosion relates to erosion
  • Identify major types of corrosion and describe how each can affect industrial plant systems
  • Relate hydrogen and hydroxyl ions to acids and bases, and discuss roles each can play in corrosion
  • List factors that affect the corrosion process in a boiler

559-05 Corrosion Control in Steam Production

When you complete this lesson, you will be able to describe how corrosion affects various systems within a steam production facility and explain how to detect common failures caused by excessive corrosion. In addition, you’ll be able to identify causes and discuss means employed to control corrosion.

  • Identify types of water treatment programs and discuss their goals
  • Describe the cause and effect of corrosion in the following:
    • Pre-boiler or feedwater system
    • Boiler system
    • Condensate system
  • Explain the steps facilities take to control or eliminate corrosion in the water and steam path
  • Explain how corrosion can be minimized by identifying condenser tube leaks through chemical analysis of steam plant water
  • Describe how boiler chemistry control can reduce the adverse effects of condenser tube leaks

559-06 Steam Chemistry Control Guidelines

When you complete this lesson, you will be able to describe the importance of steam purity and chemistry to the steam turbine. In addition, you will be able to identify how water and steam chemistry are monitored and controlled.

  • Define steam purity and describe factors that affect it
  • Explain the mechanics of steam drum carryover and identify its impact on the steam system
  • Discuss steam turbine deposition and types of corrosion
  • Examine the critical control guidelines for water treatment
  • Describe the best areas for sampling

559-07 Industrial Water Treatment Systems

When you complete this lesson, you will be able to describe the water pretreatment and treatment process, as it may exist in a typical industrial plant. In addition, you will be able to discuss chemical cleaning options for boilers and turbines.

  • Describe how the source of raw water impacts which treatment systems and procedures are required
  • Follow the flow from the source through the water treatment system
  • Describe the systems and components used in the following pre-treatment operations:
    • Clarification
    • Filtration
    • Demineralization
  • List chemicals commonly used in water treatment and identify their purpose
  • Discuss chemical cleaning options and explain how they impact the boiler and turbine efficiency

559-08 Introduction to Desalination

When you complete this lesson, you will be able to define desalination and discuss its importance to society. You will also be able to describe membrane and thermal technologies used for the desalination process, as well as the purpose of pre- and post-treatment systems.

  • Define desalination
  • Describe the process of solar distillation
  • State the main differences between membrane and thermal desalination technologies
  • Discuss the following primary methods of desalination:
  • Reverse osmosis
  • Electrodialysis
  • Multi-stage flash
  • Multi-effect distillation
  • State the purpose of pre- and post-treatment systems as they pertain to desalination technologies

559-09 Desalination: Pre- and Post-treatment of Water

When you complete this lesson, you will be able to discuss industry standard pre- and post-treatment applications for desalinated water. You will also be able to discuss concerns associated with bringing seawater into a desalination system for processing, and describe specific pre- and post-treatment applications common to processing water through reverse osmosis and thermal distillation desalination systems.

  • Explain why seawater is harmful to desalination systems
  • Define potable water and identify the international agency responsible for setting quality standards for potable water
  • State two factors that drive the pretreatment and post-treatment applications employed at a desalination facility
  • Discuss the process and importrance of the chlorination -dechlorination-chlorination application required at reverse osmosis facilities
  • List standard pre- and post-treatment applications discussed in this lesson and describe the general purpose of each
  • State and example of when post-treatment of water is NOT required

559-10 Reverse Osmosis

When you complete this lesson, you will be able to discuss the scientific principles on which reverse osmosis (RO) technology is based and explain the primary function of a reverse osmosis desalination system. You will also be able to identify the key components of a typical reverse osmosis system, with an emphasis on membrane technology, and describe the importance of permeate recovery percentage.

  • State the main purpose of reverse osmosis technology
  • Discuss the scientific principles of osmosis and osmotic pressure
  • State the purpose of high pressure pumps in a reverse osmosis system
  • Identify the main components of a spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane
  • Describe the construction of spiral wound membranes and discuss how they separate permeate and concentrate from feedwater
  • Describe the construction and purpose of a reverse osmosis vessel
  • Discuss the flow of saline water through a reverse osmosis system from intake to collection
  • Discuss the purpose of energy recovery systems used in a reverse osmosis desalination system
  • Describe the purpose of reverse osmosis pre- and post-treatment applications
  • Calculate permeate recovery percentage and describe factors that can affect this percentage

559-11 Thermal Desalination Technologies

When you complete this lesson, you will be able to discuss the principles on which thermal desalination technologies are based and explain the importance waste heat or steam plays in multiple effect distillation (MED) and multi-stage flash (MSF) systems. You will also be able to discuss the key components of MED and MSF systems, including the function of evaporators, condensers, demisters, and brine heaters. And you will be able to distinguish between multi-stage flash and multiple effect distillation technologies by comparing the differences between them.

  • Define distillate and distillation
  • Discuss how freshwater is created through the process of evaporation and condensation
  • Describe how an industrial thermal desalination facility can be an economic option for freshwater production by utilizing waste heat and processing source water through multiple stages
  • Explain the functions of the heat exchanger tube bundles and brine pool in a multiple effect distillation system
  • Explain the functions of the brine heater, brine pool, and demister in a multi-stage flash distillation system
  • Describe the flow of water from intake to collection in a multiple effect distillation (MED) system using terminology from this lesson, including:
    • Evaporator
    • Effect
    • Condensation
    • Vapor
    • Condenser
  • Describe the flow of water from intake to collection in a multi-stage flash (MSF) system using terminology from this lesson, including:
    • Stage
    • Brine heater
    • Demister
    • Condenser